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git-intro quick reference

Other cheatsheets


  • Working directory/Workspace: the actual files you see and edit
  • Staging area: Place files go after git add and before git commit
  • Hash: unique reference of any commit or state
  • Branch: One line of work. Different branches can exist at the same time and split/merge.
  • HEAD: Pointer to the most recent commit on the current branch.
  • Remote: Roughly, another server that holds git.
  • origin: Default name for a remote repository.
  • master: Default name for main branch.

Commands we use


  • git config: edit configuration options
  • git init: create new repository

See our status:

  • git status: see status of files - use often!
  • git log: see history of commits and their messages, newest first
  • git graph: see a detailed graph of commits. Create this command with git config --global alias.graph "log --all --graph --decorate --oneline"
  • git diff: show difference between working directory and last commit
  • git diff --staged: show difference between staging area and last commit
  • git show <commit>: inspect individual commits

General work:

  • git add:
    • Add a new file
    • Add a file to staging
  • git commit: record a version, add it to current branch
  • git commit --amend: amend our last commit
  • git branch: show which branch we’re on
  • git branch <name>: create a new branch <name>
  • git checkout <file>: checkout last committed version of <file>, losing unstaged changes
  • git checkout -b <branch-name>: create a new branch and switch to it
  • git revert abc123: create a new commit which reverts commit abc123
  • git reset --soft abc123: remove all commits after abc123, but keep their modifications as staged changes
  • git reset --hard abc123: remove all commits after abc123, permanently throwing away their changes
  • git merge <branch-name>: merge branch <branch-name> into current branch
  • git grep: search for patterns in tracked files
  • git annotate: find out when a specific line got introduced and by whom
  • git bisect: find a commit which broke some functionality